Sions Vises Protokoll Sions vises protokoll spelade en oerhцrd roll i den antisemitiska kampanjen efter fцrsta vдrldskriget, inte minst i det nazistiska Tyskland, dдr Hitler sjдlv genom sin bok Mein Kamp gav dem offentlig sanktion. Sions vises protokoll har vеllat judarna i vеrt еrhundrade mer lidande дn nеgon annan skrift. Dessa protokoll offentliggjordes fцrsta gеnger еr pе ryska av en professor Sergius Nilus, som ett bihang till den bok Det stora i det ringa. Nдra дr den antеgande Antikrist och djдvulens herravдlde pе jorden. Ett exemplar av denna boken fцrvдrvades еr av Brittiska Museet, det troligen enda bevarade exemplaret av boken som finns.
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The purportedly Jewish authorship also helps to make the book more convincing. Its embrace of contradiction—that to advance, Jews use all tools available, including capitalism and communism, philo-Semitism and antisemitism, democracy and tyranny—made it possible for The Protocols to reach out to all: rich and poor, Right and Left , Christian and Muslim , American and Japanese. The forgery poisoned public life wherever it appeared; it was "self-generating; a blueprint that migrated from one conspiracy to another.
In , it appeared in pamphlet form edited by Georgy Butmi de Katzman. Common to all three texts is the idea that Jews aim for world domination.
Since The Protocols are presented as merely a document , the front matter and back matter are needed to explain its alleged origin. The diverse imprints, however, are mutually inconsistent. The general claim is that the document was stolen from a secret Jewish organization. Since the alleged original stolen manuscript does not exist, one is forced to restore a purported original edition.
This has been done by the Italian scholar, Cesare G. De Michelis in , in a work which was translated into English and published in , where he treats his subject as Apocrypha. Until then, The Protocols had remained obscure;  it now became an instrument for blaming Jews for the Russian Revolution.
It became a tool, a political weapon, used against the Bolsheviks who were depicted as overwhelmingly Jewish, allegedly executing the "plan" embodied in The Protocols. De Michelis studies early Russian publications of the Protocols.
The article was written by famous conservative publicist Mikhail Menshikov as a part of his regular series "Letters to Neighbors" "Письма к ближним" and was titled "Plots against Humanity". The author described his meeting with a lady Yuliana Glinka , as it is known now who, after telling him about her mystical revelations, implored him to get familiar with the documents later known as the Protocols; but after reading some excerpts, Menshikov became quite skeptical about their origin and did not publish them.
Krushevan had initiated the Kishinev pogrom four months earlier. The person who gave me this manuscript guaranteed it to be a faithful translation of the original documents that were stolen by a woman from one of the highest and most influential leaders of the Freemasons at a secret meeting somewhere in France—the beloved nest of Freemasonic conspiracy. The text was purportedly brought to the United States by a Russian army officer in ; it was translated into English by Natalie de Bogory personal assistant of Harris A.
Houghton , an officer of the Department of War in June ,  and Russian expatriate Boris Brasol soon circulated it in American government circles, specifically diplomatic and military, in typescript form,  a copy of which is archived by the Hoover Institute.
This imprint was allegedly a translation by Victor E. Marsden, who died in October The Protocols has been proven to be a literary forgery and hoax as well as a clear case of plagiarism.
Ackerman , who later became the head of the journalism department at Columbia University. On May 8, , an article  in The Times followed German translation and appealed for an inquiry into what it called an "uncanny note of prophecy".
Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment? He later published the articles in book form, with a half million in circulation in the United States, as well as translations into a number of other languages.
They are 16 years old, and they have fitted the world situation up to this time. Rosenbaum wrote that "In , bowing to legal and economic pressure, Ford issued a retraction and apology—while disclaiming personal responsibility—for the anti-Semitic articles and closed the Dearborn Independent in This text circulates most widely in the English-speaking world, as well as on the internet.
Marsden, who was dead by then, is credited with the following assertion: It proves that the Learned Elders exist. It proves that Dr. Weizmann knows all about them.
It proves that the Jews of the world have no intention of settling in Palestine or any separate country, and that their annual prayer that they may all meet "Next Year in Jerusalem" is merely a piece of their characteristic make-believe. It also demonstrates that the Jews are now a world menace, and that the Aryan races will have to domicile them permanently out of Europe. He has forwarded us a copy of the French book from which the plagiarism is made. Despite this widespread and extensive debunking, the Protocols continued to be regarded as important factual evidence by antisemites.
Dulles, a successful lawyer and career diplomat, attempted to persuade the US State Department to publicly denounce the forgery, but without success. The first translation by an Arab Muslim was also published in Cairo, but only in Working on behalf of the defense was German antisemitic propagandist Ulrich Fleischhauer.
On May 19, , two defendants Theodore Fischer and Silvio Schnell were convicted of violating a Bernese statute prohibiting the distribution of "immoral, obscene or brutalizing" texts  while three other defendants were acquitted. The court declared the Protocols to be forgeries, plagiarisms, and obscene literature.
Judge Walter Meyer, a Christian who had not heard of the Protocols earlier, said in conclusion, I hope the time will come when nobody will be able to understand how in nearly a dozen sane and responsible men were able for two weeks to mock the intellect of the Bern court discussing the authenticity of the so-called Protocols, the very Protocols that, harmful as they have been and will be, are nothing but laughable nonsense.
A panel of three judges acquitted them, holding that the Protocols, while false, did not violate the statute at issue because they were "political publications" and not "immoral obscene publications Schundliteratur " in the strict sense of the law. The court refused to impose the fees of defense of the acquitted defendants to the plaintiffs, and the acquitted Theodor Fischer had to pay Fr. At the same time, chief rabbi Marcus Ehrenpreis of Stockholm who also witnessed at the Berne Trial sued Alfred Zander who contended that Ehrenpreis himself had said that the Protocols were authentic referring to the foreword of the edition of the Protocols by the German antisemite Theodor Fritsch.
On June 5, these proceedings ended with a settlement. In The Holocaust : The Destruction of European Jewry —, Nora Levin states that "Hitler used the Protocols as a manual in his war to exterminate the Jews": Despite conclusive proof that the Protocols were a gross forgery, they had sensational popularity and large sales in the s and s.
They were translated into every language of Europe and sold widely in Arab lands, the US, and England. But it was in Germany after World War I that they had their greatest success.
There they were used to explain all of the disasters that had befallen the country: the defeat in the war, the hunger, the destructive inflation.
Contrary to the opinion of the National Socialists, that the Jews were a highly organized group, the appalling fact was that they had no organization whatsoever. The mass of the Jewish people were taken complete by surprise. They did not know at all what to do; they had no directives or slogans as to how they should act.
This is the greatest lie of anti-Semitism because it gives the lie to that old slogan that the Jews are conspiring to dominate the world and that they are so highly organized. In reality, they had no organization of their own at all, not even an information service.
If they had had some sort of organization, these people could have been saved by the millions, but instead, they were taken completely by surprise. Never before has a people gone as unsuspectingly to its disaster. Nothing was prepared. Absolutely nothing.
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