The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Actinobacteria are one of the most important and efficient groups of natural metabolite producers. The genus Streptomyces have been recognized as prolific producers of useful natural compounds as they produced more than half of the naturally-occurring antibiotics isolated to-date and continue as the primary source of new bioactive compounds. Lately, Streptomyces groups isolated from different environments produced the same types of compound, possibly due to frequent genetic exchanges between species.
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The culture showing higher activity that is Ac1 was selected for further studies Table 3. Enzyme Kinetics The Vmax and Km was found to be Stabilities Studies of Enzyme at Different Ph and Temperature The extracted cellulase protein was found to be highly stable in a broad range of buffers for the test incubation period 1 h.
The cellulase protein was also found to be a highly thermostable. The optimum pH at which there was maximum activity was obtained at pH 5 for the sample and the control enzyme. Application of the Extracted Cellulases Paper Degradation The paper dipped in the test and the positive control showed degradation to fine fibers. The difference between the two was very large. The test enzyme showed very little visible degradation with fibers released and reduction in the size of the paper while the positive control showed complete degradation of the part of paper dipped in the liquid.
The negative control was however intact. Vegetable Degradation Fine fibres released from the vegetable matter were observed in the test as well as the positive control. Pigment was also released in case of the test sample. Potato Peel Degradation No visible degradation of potato peels observed in the test as well as the control. Seed Coat Degradation There was no visual degradation seen in the test enzyme after incubation though the positive control showed turbidity after incubation.
There was however darkening of seed coat colour or release of pigments in the test which was not observed in case of the either controls. Rice Straw Degradation by Cellulase Rice straw degradation was observed in case of cellulase extracted from Ac1. The amount of glucose released from 0. Clarification of Fruit Juice Optical density of the tested samples showed the effect of the extracted enzyme on fruit juice clearly. The percent clarification obtained for the test was approx. Discussion Programmes to select new microbes for enzyme production are increasing now.
Enzymes from bacterial and fungal sources are most commonly used for industrial applications today. Possibility of using actinomycetes for the enzyme production is now being explored on a large scale. They can be easily grown in submerged fermentations and down-streaming of products obtained from them is convenient. In the past few years many actinomycetes has been proved to be a valuable source of enzymes Jang and Chen, ; El-Sersey et al.
It is suggested that microorganisms such as actinomycetes from unexplored or underexploited habitats such as mangroves could have a better potential to produce bioactive compounds and enzymes as they are better adapted to survive in harsh conditions such as the salinity Sharma, Results obtained in the present study clearly support this rationale as the cellulase enzyme extracted from the Ac1 strain was found to be both thermo and pH stable indicating its usefulness in harsh industrial processes.
Parulekar and Abraham have recently carried out isolation of microorganisms from the mangrove habitat for the extraction of enzymes. Parulekar reported production of manganese peroxidase enzyme from the fungi isolated from the degrading wood whereas Abraham reported production of lignin peroxidase enzyme from the bacteria isolated from the degrading wood.
These studies clearly indicate that neglected habitats such as mangroves of Konkan region of Maharashtra and Goa states should be thoroughly screened as it could act as a hot spot of novel microbes with bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites such as enzymes having industrial applications. Identification done by only morphological and biochemical studies often leads to error so the use of molecular marker such as 16S rRNA gene sequence is highly recommended.
In the present study, sequence similarity of the amplified gene clearly indicated that the isolate was from the genus Streptomyces vindicating the fact that this molecular tool can be effectively used for reliable species identification up to genus level Isik et al. Among the microorganisms, actinomycetes are increasingly becoming an important resource for the production of therapeutic molecules and industrially important enzymes. In the present investigation, a novel actinomycete strain from a sea sediment sample having an ability to produce the enzyme cellulase.
The study suggested that, the cellulase enzyme extracted from the Ac1 strain was found to be both thermo and pH stable indicating its usefulness in harsh industrial processes Acknowledgements The authors are very much thankful to Dr. Patil for providing all the facilities and support for this research work and Thankful to Dr Sarita Bhutada, Director, Vihaan Life Science and Research Centre, Kopargaon for help in the preparation of manuscript.
References Abraham K. Paripex- Indian Journal of Research. El-Sersy N. H and El-Toukhy N. Optimization, economization and characterization of cellulase produced by marine Streptomyces ruber. Afr J Biotechnol. Gulve R. M and Deshmukh A. Enzymatic activity of actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments. Recent Research in Science and Technology. Isik K. African Journal of Microbiology Research.
MANGROVE ACTINOMYCETES ENZYMES PDF
Mangrove rare actinobacteria: taxonomy, natural compound, and discovery of bioactivity