MAHAKALI TREATY PDF

The Treaty has 12 Articles with a preamble. As per the Treaty principles both sides are committed to design and operate the project as a single, integrated scheme to yield, "the maximum total net benefits accruing to them". The power benefit is to be assessed on the basis of saving in costs as compared with the relevant alternatives available. As per the Treaty "equal entitlement in the utilisation of the waters of the Mahakali River "without prejudice to their respective existing consumptive uses" is also planned to be ensured from the PMP. The concluding Article 12 states as under: Following the conclusion of this Treaty, the earlier understandings reached between the parties concerning the utilisation of the waters of the Mahakali River from the Sharda Barrage and the Tanakpur Barrage, which have been incorporated herein, shall be deemed to have been replaced by this Treaty. This Treaty shall be subject to ratification and shall enter into force on the date of exchange of instruments of ratification.

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Nepal possesses enormous potential for hydropower development and India always has an interest in it. Nepal — India water relation goes back to , and there are no significant rivers left where Nepal and India have not signed the collaboration agreement in various form. Among many water-related agreements, the Mahakali treaty is the most ambitious and controversial deal enacted between Nepal and India. The Mahakali treaty was highly criticized since the inception of the package deal, and the controversy flamed further as a result of the difference in the interpretation of the provisions of the treaty.

There is a provision to review the agreement after ten years and also the provision of arbitration in the event of disputes, etc. Pancheshwor Multipurpose Project PMP was the center of attraction of the project, but up until now even detail project report DPR of the project has not been finalized which was agreed to have been completed within the six months of the enforcement of the treaty.

Even after two decades of the implementation of the agreement, there is no progress in the agreed terms in the treaty; instead, it has created a deadlock situation in Nepal-India water relations. The Mahakali treaty is the first bilateral water resources treaty that was signed when the Panchayat ruling system was overthrown, and Constitutional Monarchical Multiparty Parliamentary system was established in It integrated the then existing Sarada Barrage and Tanakpur Barrage, Pancheshwor Multipurpose Project and the treaty mentioned the provisions about the prospects of utilization of water of Mahakali River.

Nepal has, and this party has a long history of criticizing the Mahakali treaty. The UML faction of the CPN always pointed Nepal Congress for the enforcement of the unequitable Mahakali treaty and the Maoist faction still shouted against Mahakali treaty and most importantly one of the reasons for their armed struggle was enforcement of the Mahakali treaty.

Interestingly, K. P Sharma Oli, the then coordinator of the team to study the Mahakali treaty is the current most powerful Prime Minister of Nepal. I believe that the pro-active interest of India to engage in Nepal is mainly because of the changes in the dynamics of geopolitics in the region.

Also, the strengthening democracy in Nepal increased level of awareness among its people, and the rise of media and access to information to the general public in Nepal seems further factor for India to give considerable status to Nepal. Thus, it is very high time that the treaty should be re-negotiated keeping every option open; even the option to scrap the existing treaty and begin the fresh initiation for the sustainable use of the waters of the Mahakali River with an objective to benefit both the nation equitably.

Now it is an opportunity for the Communist Party of Nepal to demonstrate its nationalist image by correcting the above-discussed points of the Mahakali Treaty. Thus, for the long-term cordial relationship between the two countries, it is high time to review the treaty in detail as soon as possible. The article was published in the New Spotlight Magazine on January 7,

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Analysis of the Indo – Nepal Mahakali Treaty

Nepal possesses enormous potential for hydropower development and India always has an interest in it. Nepal — India water relation goes back to , and there are no significant rivers left where Nepal and India have not signed the collaboration agreement in various form. Among many water-related agreements, the Mahakali treaty is the most ambitious and controversial deal enacted between Nepal and India. The Mahakali treaty was highly criticized since the inception of the package deal, and the controversy flamed further as a result of the difference in the interpretation of the provisions of the treaty.

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Kalapani territory

These changes have already rolled out with no interruptions, and will allow us to continue offering the same great service at your busiest time in the year. This is not an example of the work produced by our Dissertation Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. The recent period of human history differs with the earlier period in its strikingly high rate of resource utilisation. In the present environment, apart from energy the other important focus of any nation is in garnishing fresh water, one of the most precious natural resource.

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Sharda River

Dulmaran The tail race channel joins directly the Sharda River. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. The Pancheswar Project, which was to be located on the Indo-Nepal boundary and was to be a joint project. Ghaghra RiverUttar PradeshIndia. Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi. There was to be a bi-national Mahakali River Commission, guided by the principles of equality, mutual benefit and no harm to either party. Exclusion of the amount of existing use of Mahakli waters in Tteaty in the Treaty is a clear indication that Indian side then did not intend to lay claim for additional waters in compensation for existing use or else they would have definitely required inclusion of a special clause to quantify existing use following the rule of precedent already established in the Gandak Treaty.

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