Vurisar Heterodoxus spiniger Menacanthus stramineus Chicken body-louse infests chickens, other poultry species, aviary and game birds. It is fairly host-specific, feeding only on dogs and a few other members of the family Canidae Price and Graham, ; von Keler, Journal of Parasitology Dipetalonema reconditum Grassi, from the dog with a note on its development in the flea, Ctenocephalides felisand the louse, Heterodoxus spiniger. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots. This louse is an intermediate host for the tapeworm of dogs, Dipylidium caninum. Heterodoxus spiniger — WikiVet English Heavy infestations produce irritation and biting-stress, leading to heterofoxus and much self-grooming.

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No special status Other Comments Heterodoxus spiniger has an unusual evolutionary history. All other species in the genus Heterodoxus are parasites of kangaroos and wallabies in Australia and New Guinea. The ancestor of H. From the dingo, the louse transferred to domestic dogs after European colonization of Australia, and from there the louse was spread to other parts of the world.

Ethiopian living in sub-Saharan Africa south of 30 degrees north and Madagascar. Nearctic living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

Neotropical living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain.

Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms.

Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis. In other words, India and southeast Asia. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.

Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome. Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.

References Amin, O. Distribution and seasonal dynamics of a tick, a louse fly, and a louse infesting dogs in the Nile valley and delta of Egypt. Journal of Medical Entomology, Colless, D. Heterodoxus spiniger Mallophaga: Boopidae from cats in Singapore. Journal of Parasitology, Foster, R. Hoffman, Informal report to the th meeting of the Helminthological society of Washington, May 17, Murray, M.

The host relations of the Boopiidae. Appendix 2 to Keler, S. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplement Nelson, G. Dipetalonema reconditum Grassi, from the dog with a note on its development in the flea, Ctenocephalides felis, and the louse, Heterodoxus spiniger..

Journal of Helminthology, Pennington, , Phelps. Canine filariasis on Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands. Journal of Medical Entomology, 6: Price, M.

Roberts, L. Janovy, Jr.. Foundations of Parasitology, Sixth Edition. Boston: McGraw- Hill Inc.. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplement 6:





Heterodoxus spiniger




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