GALILEO LETTER TO THE GRAND DUCHESS CHRISTINA PDF

This letter is entirely dedicated to the relationship between scientific knowledge and biblical exegesis. The Letter to Mary Christine of Lorrain is a small, precious treatise of biblical exegesis, based on St. However, we cannot exclude that new misunderstandings might rise also in the future. The novelty of these things, as well as some consequences which followed from them in contradiction to the physical notions commonly held among academic philosophers, stirred up against me no small number of professors—as if I had placed these things in the sky with my own hands in order to upset nature and overturn the sciences. They seemed to forget that the increase of known truths stimulates the investigation, establishment, and growth of the arts; not their diminution or destruction. Showing a greater fondness for their own opinions than for truth, they sought to deny and disprove the new things which, if they had cared to look for themselves, their own senses would have demonstrated to them.

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In the course of conversation at the dinner Cosimo Boscaglia , a professor of philosophy , argued that the motion of the Earth could not be true, being contrary to the Bible. After dinner ended, Castelli was called back to answer scriptural arguments against the motion of the Earth from Christina. The monk took on the role of theologian in response, and convinced everyone there except the Duchess whom he thought was arguing mainly to hear his answers and Boscaglia who said nothing during this dialogue.

Justus Sustermans - Portrait of Galileo Galilei, Galileo replied with a long letter giving his position on the relation between science and Scripture. The letter circulated in manuscript but was not printed until much later, when the Inquisition had condemned Galileo. It appeared in Strasbourg in with both Italian and Latin text, as seen in the top right image. It was suppressed in Catholic jurisdictions, as were all works of Galileo at that period which dealt with that subject.

The letter includes a direct paragraph in which Galileo wrote: I hold the sun to be situated motionless in the center of the revolution of the celestial orbs while the earth rotates on its axis and revolves about the sun.

They know also that I support this position not only by refuting the arguments of Ptolemy and Aristotle Methodology of the letter[ edit ] Galileo starts the letter with a little flattery of the Grand Duchess. He tries to build her up as an authority figure and then presents his own credentials to show that he has similar authority.

Since The Grand Duchess was a person of high authority but did not have much knowledge in the field of astronomy he was able to write the letter in a way the common person is able to understand. He attempted to manipulate the Duchess by attempting to attain her sympathy by mentioning the unfair attacks made against his honor. Joshua argument[ edit ] Critics of the Copernican system used the Battle of Gibeon from the tenth chapter of the Book of Joshua as scriptural evidence against heliocentrism.

In the chapter, Joshua asks God to stop the Sun in order to lengthen the day and allow the Israelites to win the battle. When taken literally, this story implies that the Sun is mobile.

He claimed that God stopped sunspots rather than the Sun itself, implying that it was the relationship between Sun and Earth that stopped its motion. Thus, he argued that the Earth moves around the Sun.

This served as a treatise under the disguise of a letter, with the purpose of addressing the politically powerful, as well as his fellow mathematicians and philosophers. The goal of the secondary audience was targeted to whom he believed was condemning Copernicus.

The failure of this stratagem was that he used Christina as his titular audience, instead of the shadow audience he truly sought to persuade. The result was that he was attempting to move an audience unfamiliar with his chosen topic, instead of those who were already disposed on the topic of the movement of the heavens. A Dominican theologian Tolosani made an unpublished attack on the Copernican system as early as Furthermore, the tone of the letter was combative and overly proud.

One should not wonder that everyone conspires to damn him.

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Christina of Lorraine

The novelty of these things, as well as some consequences which followed from them in contradiction to the physical notions commonly held among academic philosophers, stirred up against me no small number of professors-as if I had placed these things in the sky with my own hands in order to upset nature and overturn the sciences. They seemed to forget that the increase of known truths stimulates the investigation, establishment, and growth of the arts; not their diminution or destruction. Showing a greater fondness for their own opinions than for truth they sought to deny and disprove the new things which, if they had cared to look for themselves, their own senses would have demonstrated to them. To this end they hurled various charges and published numerous writings filled with vain arguments, and they made the grave mistake of sprinkling these with passages taken from places in the Bible which they had failed to understand properly, and which were ill-suited to their purposes. These men would perhaps not have fallen into such error had they but paid attention to a most useful doctrine of St. Speaking of a certain physical conclusion about the heavenly bodies, he wrote: "Now keeping always our respect for moderation in grave piety, we ought not to believe anything inadvisedly on a dubious point, lest in favor to our error we conceive a prejudice against something that truth hereafter may reveal to be not contrary in any way to the sacred books of either the Old or the New Testament.

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Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina

In the course of conversation at the dinner Cosimo Boscaglia , a professor of philosophy , argued that the motion of the Earth could not be true, being contrary to the Bible. After dinner ended, Castelli was called back to answer scriptural arguments against the motion of the Earth from Christina. The monk took on the role of theologian in response, and convinced everyone there except the Duchess whom he thought was arguing mainly to hear his answers and Boscaglia who said nothing during this dialogue. Justus Sustermans - Portrait of Galileo Galilei, Galileo replied with a long letter giving his position on the relation between science and Scripture.

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