Here, we describe a high-throughput genomics approach that provides a high-resolution view of the epidemiology and microevolution of a dominant strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA. This approach reveals the global geographic structure within the lineage, its intercontinental transmission through four decades, and the potential to trace person-to-person transmission within a hospital environment. The ability to interrogate and resolve bacterial populations is applicable to a range of infectious diseases, as well as microbial ecology. The development of molecular typing techniques has been instrumental in studying the population structure and evolution of bacterial pathogens.
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The following resources related to this article are available online at www. Copyright by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved. Stanley, S. Raghavan, W. Hwang, J. Cox, nism Fig. Stamm et al. The observation that uninfected epithelial Hagedorn, K.
Rohde, D. Russell, T. Soldati, cell mmp9 induction can occur distant from in- References and Notes Science , Clay et al. Russell, Nat. Wolf et al. Hsu et al. Adams, Am. Ulrichs, S. Kaufmann, J. Materials and methods are available as supporting supernatants rapidly induced mmp9 expression 5. Volkman et al. Davis, L. Ramakrishnan, Cell , 37 We thank J. Gordon, W. Parks, D. Raible, D. Sherman, Fig. The ESX-1 secretion system secretes 7. Van den Steen et al. Urdahl, and P.
Elkington for advice and discussion; five proteins that are all mutually codependent 37, Beery and R. Kim for help with microinjections; and for secretion, so distinguishing their individual 8.
Greenlee, Z. Werb, F. Kheradmand, Physiol. Cameron, L. Swaim, and H. Wiedenhoft for fish facility roles in virulence has been difficult 14, We 69 We also thank K. Winglee for developing 9. Price et al. FPC analysis methods, R. Burmeister for graphic design, pursued ESAT-6 as the lead candidate for in- Taylor et al.
Tobin, B. Cormack, W. Stetson, R. Berg, ducing mmp9 for two reasons: ESAT-6 mediates Park et al. Chu for review of the manuscript. This work was virulence independent of secretion 15 , and its Sheen et al. Clay, H. Volkman, L. Injection of 4. DiGiuseppe Champion, J. Cox, Cell. In con- Simeone, D. Bottai, R. Brosch, Curr. Derrick, S. Morris, Cell. Chang et al.
Supporting Online Material mmp9 significantly Fig. Moreover, coin- Price, R. Gilman, J. Uddin, S. Recavarren, www. Friedland, J. Shi et al. S1 to S7 Elkington et al. Cell Mol. References Finally, similar to RD1-competent bacteria Zhu, N. Gilman, S. Recarvarren, Movies S1 to S3 Fig. Le Guellec, G. Morvan-Dubois, J. Sire, Int. Published online 10 December ; interaction with epithelial cells.
We next asked Sherman et al. Koo et al. Include this information when citing this paper. ESAT-6 induced mmp9 in myd88 and tnf-receptor 1 tr1 morphants Fig. More- over, TNF-independent induction of mmp9 is Hospital Transmission and consistent with the finding that TNF does not mediate granuloma formation either in the pres- Intercontinental Spread ence or absence of bacterial RD1 Holden,1 Michael A.
Quail,1 moting granuloma formation via interaction with Emma K. Lindsay,8 Jonathan D.
Evolution of MRSA During Hospital Transmission and Intercontinental Spread
Evolution of MRSA during hospital transmission and intercontinental spread.