EN 13445-1 PDF

Part 4: Fabrication. Part 5: Inspection and testing. Part 6: Requirements for the design and fabrication of pressure vessels and pressure parts constructed from spheroidal graphite cast iron. CR , Unfired pressure vessels - Part 7: Guidance on the use of conformity assessment procedures.

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Part 4: Fabrication. Part 5: Inspection and testing. Part 6: Requirements for the design and fabrication of pressure vessels and pressure parts constructed from spheroidal graphite cast iron. CR , Unfired pressure vessels - Part 7: Guidance on the use of conformity assessment procedures. As such the manufacture of unfired pressure vessels requires the application of all the relevant Parts in order for the requirements of the Standard to be satisfactorily fulfilled.

It defines terms, definitions and symbols applicable to unfired pressure vessels. NOTE In EN the term pressure vessel includes the welded attachments up to and including the nozzle flanges, screwed or welded connections, or the edge to be welded at the first circumferential weld at connecting piping or other elements. The term unfired excludes vessels that are subject to direct generated heat or flame impingement from a fired process.

This does not exclude vessels subject to electrical heating or heated process streams. In Parts 1 to 5 only pressure vessels manufactured from steels and steel castings as detailed in Part 2 of this standard are covered.

Part 6 specifically deals with spheroidal graphite cast iron and special considerations apply. Part 1" This Part outlines the basic principles underpinning the standard. The manufacturer is required to declare that the technical design specification and the supporting documentation are in compliance with the requirements of this standard. These need to be handled with the same rigour as the original design.

Part 2 This Part deals with the general philosophy on materials, material grouping and low temperature behaviour in relation to Room Temperature performance. It is limited to steel with sufficient ductility and excludes at present materials operating in the creep range. Part 2 provides the general requirements for establishing technical delivery conditions. Furthermore Part 2 includes the requirements for marking.

Four annexes give further details. Furthermore Annex A adds a list of all those material grades based upon European base material standards which are accepted to be used for unfired pressure vessels made to this standard The normative Annex B gives the necessary information on the requirements for the prevention of brittle fracture in the base material and the welds. Two methods based upon a code of practice developed from fracture mechanics are covered.

The informative Annex C gives information on technical delivery conditions for clad products. Annex D gives an informative survey on European base material and component standards and their systematic nomenclature.

Rules are also given for components subjectto local loads and. These formulae are generaily intended for predominantly non-cyclic loads, which means for a number of full pressure cycles not exceeding However general prescriptions are also given for DBA Design by Analysis which can be used either to evaluate component designs or loading situations for which a DBF method is not provided, or, more generally, as an alternative to DBF.

Methods are also given where a fatigue evaluation is required, due to a number of load cycles being greater than There are two alternative methods: a simplified method based on DBF valid only in case of pressure variations and a more sophisticated method based on a detailed determination of total stresses using, for example, FEM or experimental methods.

This can be used also in the case of variable loads other than pressure. For certain components such as flanges and tubesheets also an alternative DBF method based on limit analysis has been provided; the choice of which method has to be used in each particular case is lett to the Designer.

For the time being, the scope of Part 3 is limited to steel components working at temperatures lower than the creep vange of the specific material concerned. Part 4 is not applicable for Part 6 which has separate and different requirements regarding manufacturing. Part 5 This Part covers all those inspection and testing activities associated with the verification of the pressure vessel for compliance with the standard.

Inspection activities include design review by the manufacturer and supporting technical documentation.. Numerous inspection activities, in addition to the Non Destructive Testing NOT are described including document control, material traceability, joint preparation and welding. The requirements for testing are predominantly related to individually designed single vessels.

However, Annex A provides a procedure for serially produced pressure vessels. Basically, the testing group determines the level of NOT and the joint coefficient used in the design. There are four testing groups which are designed to give the same safety by a combination of several factors. Testing groups take into consideration manufacturing difficulties associated with different groups of steels, maximum permitted thickness, welding processes, service temperature range and the thickness by means of the joint coefficient of the governing joint.

However, it was necessary to subdivide testing groups 1, 2 and 3 into subgroups 1 a, 1 b, 2a, 2b, 3a, and 3b in order to reflect the better behaviour to crack sensitivity of easy to weld steels of groups 1. A single testing group is normally applied to the entire vessel. However, provided specific requirements are met, a combination of testing groups is permitted. Appropriate formulae are given in order that the stresses be limited to safe values.

These formulae are generally intended for predominantly static loads, which means for a number of load cycles not exceeding in the case of spheroidal graphite cast iron. Calculation of minimum wall thickness is dealt with by Part 3 except for design stresses which are given in Part 6. A method for design by experiment up to 6 bar-l without calculation is given.

Material requirements are as in Part 2 except for the tables in Part 6. Inspection and testing requirements are as in Part 5 except requirements for castings and test pressure. Interaction between good design and good workmanship is so important for cast vessels that special requirements are laid down in this Part. Annex A is informative for the determination of burst pressure and wall thickness minimum requirements.

This European Standard applies to unfired pressure "sse Is subject to a maximum allowable pressure greater than 0,5 bar gauge but may be used for vessels Jerating at lower pressures, including vacuum.

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The manufacturer in selecting an appropriate weld detail should give consideration to: a the method of manufacture; the service conditions e. Other weld details may be used. NOTE 1 Annex A of EN gives figures of the joints in finished condition, design requirements mainly on geometry, a list of applicable testing groups, recommendations for prevention of lamellar tearing and corrosion. These details show sound and commonly accepted practice. It is not intended that these are considered mandatory or should restrict development of welding technology any way and as a result other suitable weld details may be used.

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