Zolojora Fortunately there is a procedure that reduces both the tree branches that must be generated and the number of evaluations. The simple idea of branch and bound is the following: The second improvement is dynamic programming. Show the state of the data structure Q and the visited list clearly at every step. But one thing that lacks in both is that whenever they find a solution they immediately stop. We will discuss the technique with the same example as that handotus branch-and- bound.

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Vokinos Use your suggested solutions to the above mention problems if any of them are encountered. Run the MiniMax procedure on the given tree.

K is the goal state and numbers written on each node is the estimate of remaining distance to the goal. All these heuristically informed ahndouts are considered better but they do not guarantee the optimal solution, as they are dependent on the quality of heuristic being used.

This hndouts is analogous to the brute force method and is also called the British museum procedure. Q6 Discuss how best first search works in a tree. Hajdouts to model the problem in a graphical representation. Hence a huge amount of computation power and time is required in solving the optimal search problems in a brute force manner. The values on the edges are the distance between two adjacent cities. Consider the following diagram.

Hence we block all the further sub-trees along this path, as handotus in the diagram below. Support your answer with an example tree. Support your answer with examples of a few trees. We see that C is a leaf node so we bind C too as shown in the next diagram.

We start with a tree with goodness handoutz every node mentioned on it. The other player is called minimizing player or minimizer. We construct the tree corresponding to the graph above. We have shown the sequence of steps in the diagrams below. Now after observing the other side of the tree, this score will either increase or will remain the same as this level is for the maximizer. When he evaluates the first leaf node on the other side of the tree, he will see that the minimizer can force him to a score of less than 3 hence there is no need to fully explore the tree from that side.

We visit F and finally we reach G as shown in the subsequent diagrams. The basic idea was to reduce the search space by binding the paths that exceed the path length from Handoutw to G. That is, before making a move he looks a few levels down the game tree to see that what can be the bandouts of his move and what options will be open to the opponent once he has made this move. We have discussed a detailed example on Alpha Beta Pruning in the lectures.

Among these, D the child of S is the best option. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The second improvement is dynamic programming. Hence using dynamic programming we will ignore the whole sub-tree beneath D the child of A as shown in the next diagram. Also note that while traveling from S to B we have already covered cs60 distance of 9 units. For example, in a game of tic-tac-toe player one might want that he should complete a line with crosses while at the same time player two wants to complete a line of zeros.

Simulate the algorithm on the given graph below. Artificial Intelligence CS The maximizer has to keep in view that what choices will be available to the minimizer on the next step. The numbers on the nodes are the estimated distance on the node from the goal state. Negative numbers indicate favor to the other player. Notice further that if player one puts a cross in any box, player-two will intelligently try to make a move that would leave player-one with minimum chance to win, that is, he will try to stop player- one from completing a line of crosses and at the same time will try to complete his line of zeros.

We then move to F as that is the best option at this point with a value 7. Standing at S we observe that the best node is A with a value of 4 so we move to 4. Clearly identify the four components of problem solving in the above statement, i. We select H which is the best of them. In many applications there might be multiple agents or persons searching for solutions in the same solution space.

We convert the map to a tree as shown below. The static evaluation scores for each leaf node are written handouuts it. Most 10 Related.

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## CS607 HANDOUTS PDF

Vokinos Use your suggested solutions to the above mention problems if any of them are encountered. Run the MiniMax procedure on the given tree. K is the goal state and numbers written on each node is the estimate of remaining distance to the goal. All these heuristically informed ahndouts are considered better but they do not guarantee the optimal solution, as they are dependent on the quality of heuristic being used. This hndouts is analogous to the brute force method and is also called the British museum procedure. Q6 Discuss how best first search works in a tree.

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## CS607_handouts_1_45.pdf

Kazibei They never consider that their might be more than one solution to the problem and the solution that they have ignored might be the optimal one. Notice further that if player one puts a cross in any box, player-two will intelligently try to make a move that would leave player-one with minimum chance to win, that is, he will try to stop player- one from completing a line of crosses and at the same time will try to complete his line of zeros. Simulate the algorithm on the given graph below. Artificial Intelligence CS The minimizer has to keep in view that what choices will be available to the maximizer on the next step. Suppose we start of with a game tree in the diagram below. Hence we always travel with underestimates of the remaining distance. When he evaluates the first leaf node on the other side of the tree, he will see that the minimizer can force him to a score of less than 3 hence there is no need to fully explore the tree from that side.

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## CS607 – Artificial Intelligence

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