CARNIE SYNTAX A GENERATIVE INTRODUCTION PDF

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It is mainly written in the Principles and Parameters framework chapters , although it briefly covers some of the fundamental notions and ideas of the Minimalist Program chapter 12 and the frameworks of Lexical-Functional Grammar chapter 13 and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar chapter It aims to provide an introductory guide to students who are unfamiliar with syntactic concepts. Each chapter is supplemented with the rich use of examples, and contains a summary of the issues raised in that chapter and of the main points that will be discussed in the next one, an appendix explaining the terminology used in that chapter, and references for further reading.

Finally problem sets are provided, which enable students to apply the theoretical concepts to the analysis of a variety of languages. The discussion is often accompanied with textboxes presenting issues for further consideration. The book is divided into four parts: - Part 1: Preliminaries pp.

A bibliography pp. Part 1: Preliminaries Chapter 1: Generative Grammar The first chapter of this part introduces the main principles of Generative Grammar. It briefly discusses the notion of big and little "l" language and presents definitions of syntax, phonetics, phonology, morphology, semantics, cognitive science, prescriptive and descriptive grammars, anaphor, grammatical gender, antecedent, number, person, case, nominative, accusative, corpus, semantic and syntactic judgements, learning, acquisition, recursion, observationally, explanatorily and descriptively adequate grammars, innate, universal grammar, the logical problem of acquisition, underdetermination of the data, universal, scientific method and the use of the asterisk.

The readers are further referred to Chomsky and Jackendoff amongst others. In the problem sets the students are invited to judge whether a number of sentences are grammatical or ungrammatical and define their answers in terms of prescriptive or descriptive judgements as well as whether the ungrammaticality relates to the semantics or syntax.

Moreover there are tasks on innateness, prescriptive rules, universals, learning versus acquisition, levels of adequacy and anaphora. Chapter 2: Fundamentals: Rules, Trees and Parts of Speech In this chapter the syntactic categories of noun, verb, preposition, adverb and adjective as well as open versus closed classes of speech are introduced. The author discusses constituency and constituency tests movement, clefting, preposing and coordination , trees, hierarchical structure and the phrase structure rules: noun phrase, verb phrase, adverb phrase, adjective phrase, prepositional phrase.

He further introduces the notion of recursivity, the principle of modification and the ways for drawing trees. The readers are referred to Chomsky , and Radford amongst others. Finally students are asked to deal with a series of questions related to the parts of speech, the drawing of trees and bracketed diagrams and the formulation of phrase structure rules for given English, Nootka, Bambara, Hixkaryana and Irish sentences.

Chapter 3: Structural Relations The aim of this chapter is to discuss the properties of trees: branches, node, label, root node, terminal node, and non-terminal node. He further explores the structural relations: immediate, exhaustive, axioms of dominance, mother, daughter, constituent, axioms of precedence, symmetric, asymmetric c-commanding, binding, no crossing branches constraint and grammatical relations subject, object, object of preposition, indirect object and obliques.

The students are further referred to Chomsky , Higginbothan and Reinhart and are invited to discuss the structural and grammatical relations in given English, Tzotzil and Hiaki sentences as well as negative polarity items. Chapter 4: Binding Theory In this chapter Binding Theory is discussed; anaphors, R-expressions, pronouns, coindex, antecedent, indices, binding, Binding Principles A, B and C as well as the locality conditions locality constraint, binding domain.

Students are further referred to the works of Chomsky , Higginbotham and Reinhart He finally offers a section on drawing trees in X-Bar notation. The students are referred to Chomsky , Jackendoff , Kayne , Lightfoot , Radford for further reading on X-bar theory. The problem sets incorporate tree drawing, explanation within X-Bar theory of the ungrammaticality of certain German word orders as well as of the position of complements, adjuncts and specifiers in Japanese sentences.

Students are referred to Chomsky and Pollock amongst others and are invited to discuss the function of that in English, identify the subjects, predicate phrases, clause types, draw the trees for English sentences by using CPs, TPs and DPs, argue on the possibility that modals are of category T, whereas auxiliaries are verbs and finally identify the possessor DP in a Hungarian sentence. In specific the notions of predicate, arguments, argument structure, intransitive, transitive and ditransitive verbs, categorisation and selectional restrictions, thematic relations agent, experiencer, theme, goal, recipient, source, location, instrument, benefactive , theta grid, external versus internal theta roles and the theta criterion are explored.

Furthermore the lexicon computational component, lexical items, the projection principle , expletives, expletive insertion and the Extended Projection Principle are introduced. The works of Grimshaw and Haegeman amongst others are proposed for further reading. In the problem sets students are asked to identify the theta roles and provide the theta grid for Sinhala, Warlpiri, Hiaki and passive English sentences as well as identify the problems the theta criterion imposes in Irish sentences and object expletives in English.

They are finally asked to work on a comparative analysis on the antipassives in English and Inuriaq sentences.

Part 3: Transformations Chapter 8: Head-to-Head Movement The computational component is further discussed in this chapter the base, D-structure, underlying representation, transformational rules, S-structure in addition to a discussion on head-to-head movement; V-to-T in French, English and Irish verb raising parameter, VP internal subject hypothesis , NP movement, T-to-C, and do-support.

Finally Carnie provides some tests for determining whether a language has V-to-T or affix lowering. Students are also referred to Emonds and Koopman and Sportiche amongst others.

The problem sets include exercises on identifying and providing evidence on whether a given language Persian, German, Italian has V-to-T or lowering, whether the American versus the British English verb have undergoes movement and finally discuss the Germanic V2, the Hebrew construct state N-to-D , the Italian N-to-D, the analysis of English quantifiers, proper names and nouns. Students are further referred to Burzio and Chomsky amongst others.

Chapter Raising, Control and Empty Categories Raising, control and empty categories are the main subjects of the discussion in this chapter: control sentence, clausal subject construction, extraposition, subject-to-subject raising, Exceptional Case Marking, equi, object control, the ways in distinguishing raising from control, control theory, obligatory versus optional control, PRO, pro, arbitrary PRO, the null subject parameter and pragmatics.

The works of Chomsky and Hornstein , amongst others, are introduced for further reading. Finally students are invited to determine whether some predicates in English are control or raising and discuss PRO and pro in Icelandic and Irish respectively.

Chapter wh-Movement Wh-movement is discussed in chapter 11; wh-island, bounding theory, bounding nodes, the subjacency constraint, the doubly filled CP and that-trace filters. Students are referred to Lighfoot and Rizzi Wh-words in English, Irish and Serbo-Croatian, binding and scrambling are parts of the problem sets. Chapter Towards Minimalism The principle of Full Interpretation, local configuration, the Minimal Link Condition, subjacency, universal and existential quantifiers, scope wide, narrow , economy conditions, Logical form LF , Phonetic form PF , movement overt, covert , functional categories, wh-in situ, strong versus weak features and merge are briefly presented in this chapter.

Students are further referred to Chomsky and Heim and Kratzer amongst others, and they are invited to discuss PF movement and wh-questions in Serbo-Croatian versus English in the problem sets. Part 4: Alternatives Chapter Lexical-Functional Grammar Lexical-Functional Grammar is briefly outlined in this chapter: movement paradoxes, C-structure, F-structure, A-structure, grammatical function, the attribute value matrix, variables, metavariable, functional equation, F-description, annotated C-structure, unification, uniqueness, completeness, coherence, head mobility, the lexical rule of passives, open function, functional control and raising versus control are the issues presented.

Chapter Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar In the final chapter of this book some of the most fundamental parts of Head-Driven Phrase Structure are presented: features, SYN-SEM structure, coreference tags, the argument realisation principles, the plural, passive, head complement, head modifier, head specifier, head filter rules, compositional, feature satisfaction, head feature, valence, semantic compositionally, semantic inheritance, the GAP principles, and Principles A and B.

It enables them not only to grasp most of the main principles of the Principles and Parameters framework, but also offers an introduction to some of the main notions of Minimalism, Lexical-Functional Grammar and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar and leads them to become familiar with the process of argumentation. Throughout, common mistakes and pitfalls are pointed out and ways of avoiding them are highlighted. The exercises also enable the students to apply the theoretical concepts not only to English syntax but also cross-linguistically.

The book is written in a reader-friendly way, and guides students to grasp complicated syntactic concepts and analyses. As a whole, the book is well-organised, coherent and user-friendly. The discussion is illustrated by numerous examples and the chapters are organised so as to support cross-reference.

I also believe that the references to further reading are not only appropriate but also absolutely necessary. In addition the appendices on the terminology used in each chapter are extremely useful. The book does not deal with some syntactic topics that many would consider important.

For example, he assumes that auxiliaries are generated in T, not Aux, so that they do not have to undergo V-to-T; consequently he does not need to refer to VP-shells. He also acknowledges omitting discussion of government and of VP ellipsis.

I also feel that more attention could have been paid to modal verbs and negation. Here is a listing of some misprints and other infelicities. Footnote 3 refers to this sentence: " When you go back to page , only S is used in that tree. Example 30 is a tree. In addition the topics preposing, clefting and pseudoclefting are missing from the index. Dordrecht: Reidel. Chomsky, Noam Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton. Chomsky, Noam Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Chomsky, Noam Remarks on nominalization. Jacobs and P. Rosenbaum eds Reading in English Transformational Grammar. Waltham: Ginn. New York: Plenum. Chomsky, Noam On Binding. Linguistic Inquiry Chomsky, Noam Some notes on economy of derivation and representation.

Friedin ed. Chomsky, Noam A minimalist program for linguistic theory. Hale and S. Chomsky, Noam The Minimalist Program. Emonds, Joseph Word order in Generative Grammar. Journal of Linguistic Research Grimshaw, Jane Argument Structure.

Oxford: Blackwell. Higginbotham, James Pronouns and bound variables. Higginbotham, James A note on phrase markers. Hornstein, Norbert Movement and control. Jackendoff, Ray Patterns in the Mind. London: Harvester-Wheatsheaf. Kayne, Richard The Antisymmetry of Syntax. Koopman, Hilda and Sportiche, Dominique The position of subjects. Lingua Lightfoot, David Trace theory and twice moved NPs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Reinhart, Tanya The syntactic domain of anaphora. Reinhart, Tanya Anaphora and Semantic Interpretation. London: Croom Helm. Rizzi, Luigi Issues in Italian Syntax.

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Syntax: A Generative Introduction

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