As Humayun had never seen one before, they rushed to find it. There is a break in all known manuscripts between and The account of the decisive First Battle of Panipat in is followed by long descriptions of India, its people, fauna and flora. Various exciting incidents are recounted and illustrated: Babur jumps off his horse just in time to avoid following it into a river, and when his army has formed its boats into a circle a fish jumps into a boat to escape from a crocodile. The copy seen in the Mughal Library in the s, and presumably used to base the Persian translation on, seems to have been lost.

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In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. In the month of Ramzan of the year June and in the twelfth year of my age, I became ruler in the country of Fergana. On the east it has Kashghar; on the west, Samarkand; on the south, the mountains of the Badakhshan border; on the north, though in former times there must have been towns such as Almaligh, Almatu and Yangi which in books they write Taraz, at the present time all is desolate, no settled population whatever remaining, because of the Moghuls and the Uzbeks.

Fergana is a small country, abounding in grain and fruits. It is girt round by mountains except on the west, i. The Saihun River commonly known as the Water of Khujand, comes into the country from the northeast, flows westward through it and after passing along the north of Khujand and the south of Fanakat, now known as Shahrukhiya, turns directly north and goes to Turkistan.

It does not join any sea but sinks into the sands, a considerable distance below [the town of] Turkistan. Fergana has seven separate townships, five on the south and two on the north of the Saihun. One of those on the south is Andijan, which has a central position and is the capital of the Fergana country. It produces much grain, fruits in abundance, excellent grapes and melons.

In the melon season, it is not customary to sell them out at the fields. There are no pears better than those of Andijan. It has three gates. Its citadel ark is on its south side. Water flows into it by nine channels, but, oddly, flows out by none. Round the outer edge of the ditch runs a gravelled highway; the width of this highway divides the fort from the suburbs surrounding it.

Andijanis are all Turks; everyone in town or bazar knows Turki. Good looks are common amongst them. The famous musician, Khwaja Yusuf, was an Andijani. The climate is malarious; in autumn people generally get fever. Osh is southeast-by-east of Andijan and about 33 miles from it by road. It has a fine climate, an abundance of running waters and a most beautiful spring season.

Many traditions have their rise in its excellencies. To the southeast of the walled town lies a symmetrical mountain, known as the Bara Koh. On the top of this, Sultan Mahmud Khan built a retreat and lower down on its shoulder, in AH , I built another with a porch.

Though his lies the higher, mine is the better placed, the whole of the town and the suburbs being at its foot. The Andijan torrent goes to Andijan after having traversed the suburbs of Osh. Orchards lie along both its banks; all the Osh gardens overlook it. Their violets are very fine; they have running waters and in spring are most beautiful with the blossoming of many tulips and roses. Between this mosque and the town, a great main canal flows from the direction of the hill.

Below the outer court of the mosque lies a shady and delightful clover-meadow where every passing traveller takes a rest. It is the joke of the ragamuffins of Osh to let out water from the canal on anyone happening to fall asleep in the meadow. Knife handles, clasps for belts and many other things are made from it.

For climate and for pleasantness, no township in all Farghana equals Osh. Its apricots and pomegranates are most excellent. One sort of pomegranate, they call the Great Seed; its sweetness has a little of the pleasant flavour of an overripe apricot and it may be thought better than the Semnan pomegranate.

They dry another kind of apricot and after stoning, stuff it with almonds. They call it subhani, and it is very palatable. The hunting and fowling of Marghilan are good: white deer [sheep? Its people are Sarts, boxers who are noisy and turbulent. Most of the noted bullies of Samarkand and Bukhara are Marghilanis. The author of the Hidayat was from Rashdin, one of the villages of Marghilan.

Another town is Isfara, in the hill-country more than 65 miles by road southwest of Marghilan. It has running waters, beautiful little gardens and many fruit-trees although for the most part, its orchards produce almonds.

Its people are all Persian-speaking Sarts. In the hills some two miles to the south of the town, is a piece of rock, known as the Mirror Stone. It is some 10 arm-lengths long, as high as a man in parts, up to his waist in others.

Everything is reflected by it as by a mirror. The hill country of Isfara district has four subdivisions--one Isfara, one Vorukh, one Sokh and one Uchyar. Another town is Khujand, miles by road to the west of Andijan and miles east of Samarkand. Khujand is one of the ancient towns among whose sons were Shaikh Maslahat and Khwaja Kamal. Fruit grows well there; its pomegranates are renowned for their excellence.

People talk of a Khujand pomegranate as they do of a Samarkand apple; just now however, Marghilan pomegranates are the ones in much demand. To the north of both the town and the river lies a mountain range called Manoghal. The hunting and fowling-grounds of Khujand are first-rate; white deer, buck and doe, pheasant and hare are all very plentiful.

The climate is very malarious; in autumn there is much fever. People rumour it about that the very sparrows get fever and say that the cause of the malaria is the mountain range on the north i. Kand-i-badam Village of the Almond is a dependency of Khujand; though it is not a full-fledged township, it is close to one.

Its almonds are excellent, hence its name; they all are exported to Hormuz or to Hindustan. It is 18 miles east of Khujand. Between Kand-i-badam and Khujand lies the waste known as Ha Darwesh which is always very windy. Its violent, whirling winds continually strike Marghilan to the east and Khujand on its west. People say that some dervishes, encountering a whirlwind in this desert, lost one another and kept crying, "Hay Darwesh!

Hay Darwesh! One of the townships on the north of the Syr-Darya is Akhsi. In books they write it Akhsikit, and for this reason the poet Asiruddin is known as Akhsikiti.

After Andijan, no township in Fergana is larger than Akhsi, which is about 50 miles by road to the west of Andijan. The Syr-Darya flows below its walled town, which stands above a great ravine and uses the deep ravines in place of a moat. In all Fergana no fort is so strong as Akhsi. Its suburbs extend some two miles further than the walled town.

People say of Akhsi, "Where is the village? Where are the trees? The melons of Bukhara are famous. When I took Samarkand, I had some brought from there and some from Akhsi.

They were cut up at an entertainment and those from Bukhara could not compare with those from Akhsi. The fowling and hunting of Akhsi are very good indeed; white deer abound in the waste on the Akhsi side of the Syr-Darya; in the jungle on the Andijan side, abundant and well-fed bucks and does, pheasant and hare are had.

To the north of Akhsi is the rather small township of Kasan. Kasan has excellent air and beautiful little gardens. As these gardens all lie along the bed of the river people call them the "fine front of the coat. In the mountains round Fergana are excellent summer pastures. There and nowhere else grows the tabalghu [a variety of willow], a tree with red bark.

They make staves and bird-cages of it; they scrape it into arrows. It is an excellent wood and because of its rarity is carried to distant places. Some books write that the mandrake [belladonna] is found in these mountains, but for this long time past nothing has been heard of it. A plant called Ayiq oti and having the qualities of the mandrake is known in Yeti-kent There are turquoise and iron mines in these mountains.

With care, three or four thousand men may be maintained by the revenues of Fergana. One of the tribes of the wilds of Andijan is the Jigrak [Chakrak], a numerous people of five or six thousand households, dwelling in the mountains between Kashghar and Fergana. They have many horses and sheep and also numbers of yaks, which such hill-people keep instead of common cattle.

As their mountains are border-fastnesses, they avoid paying tribute. An army was now sent against them under Sayyid Qasim Beg in order that out of the tribute taken from them something might reach the soldiers.

He took about 20, of their sheep and between and of their horses and shared all out to the men. It is of the Fifth Climate and situated in lat. They used to call it Baldat-i-mahfuza [Protected Town] because no foe had managed to storm and sack it. The Turk and Moghul hordes call it Simiz-kint. Timur Beg made it his capital; no ruler so great ever made it a capital before. I ordered people to pace round the ramparts of the walled-town; the distance measured 10, steps.

Samarkandis are all orthodox Sunni , pure-in the Faith, law-abiding and religious. The Kohik River [i.


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