Kazibei Athanasius was residing in the precincts of the church of St. The faithful gathered around him weeping. He himself like earlier Alexandrians, Routh, Rell. In truth, that crafty one did not escape detection; but, for all his many writhings to and fro, like the serpent, he did but fall into the error of the Pharisees. At his death they were made guar- dians of his two sons, whose names, as another document tells us 2were Aizan and Sazan. One sentence, in c.

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They, however, for whatever reason, still do not succumb; but, as swine and dogs wallow in their own vomit and their own mire, rather invent new expedients for their irreligion.

If then He be not a Son, let Him be called a work, and let all that is said of works be said of Him, nor let Him and Him alone be called Son, nor Word, nor Wisdom; neither let God be called Father, but only Framer and Creator of things which by Him come to be; and let the creature be Image and Expression of His framing will, and let Him, as they would have it, be without generative nature, so that there be neither Word, nor Wisdom, no, nor Image, of His proper substance. For if He be not Son , neither is He Image.

But if there be not a Son, how then say you that God is a Creator? Since all things that come to be are through the Word and in Wisdom, and without This nothing can be, whereas you say He has not That in and through which He makes all things.

For if the Divine Essence be not fruitful itself , but barren, as they hold, as a light that lightens not, and a dry fountain, are they not ashamed to speak of His possessing framing energy? And whereas they deny what is by nature, do they not blush to place before it what is by will?

But if He frames things that are external to Him and before were not, by willing them to be, and becomes their Maker, much more will He first be Father of an Offspring from His proper Essence. For if they attribute to God the willing about things which are not, why recognise they not that in God which lies above the will? Now it is a something that surpasses will, that He should be by nature, and should be Father of His proper Word. If then that which comes first, which is according to nature, did not exist, as they would have it in their folly, how could that which is second come to be, which is according to will?

For the Word is first, and then the creation. On the contrary the Word exists, whatever they affirm, those irreligious ones; for through Him did creation come to be, and God , as being Maker, plainly has also His framing Word, not external, but proper to Him — for this must be repeated.

If He has the power of will, and His will is effective, and suffices for the consistence of the things that come to be, and His Word is effective, and a Framer, that Word must surely be the living Will of the Father , and an essential energy, and a real Word, in whom all things both consist and are excellently governed.

No one can even doubt , that He who disposes is prior to the disposition and the things disposed. As we have shown then they are guilty of great extravagance who say that the Lord is not Son of God , but a work, and it follows that we all of necessity confess that He is Son. And if He be Son, as indeed He is, and a son is confessed to be not external to his father but from him, let them not question about the terms, as I said before, which the sacred writers use of the Word Himself, viz.

For terms do not disparage His Nature; rather that Nature draws to Itself those terms and changes them. For terms are not prior to essences, but essences are first, and terms second.

But this stay of theirs also is but a broken reed; for if they are aware of the style of Scripture, they must at once give sentence against themselves. This being so , when persons ask whether the Lord is a creature or work, it is proper to ask of them this first, whether He is Son and Word and Wisdom. For if this is shown, the surmise about work and creation falls to the ground at once and is ended.

For a work could never be Son and Word; nor could the Son be a work. For if the Son be a creature, by what word then and by what wisdom was He made Himself? And what room is there for judgment, when the Judge is on trial? Who will give to the just their blessing, who to the unworthy their punishment, the Lord, as you must suppose, standing on trial with the rest? By what law shall He, the Lawgiver, Himself be judged? These things are proper to the works, to be on trial, to be blessed and to be punished by the Son.

But further, since the drift also of the context is orthodox , showing the time and the relation to which this expression points, I ought to show from it also how the heretics lack reason; viz. For what happened of old was a shadow of this; and what the Saviour did on His coming, this Aaron shadowed out according to the Law. And who again, on such a question, would not have answered, that the Father made Him man, and sent Him to us as High Priest? For there is one train of thought, and the lection is all about One and the Same.

Wherefore in all things it behooved Him to be made like His brethren, that He might be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God , to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.

For in that He Himself has suffered being tempted, He is able to succour them that are tempted. Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Jesus; who was faithful to Him that made Him.

Who can read this whole passage without condemning the Arians , and admiring the blessed Apostle, who has spoken well? For Moses , a man by nature, became faithful, in believing God who spoke to Him by His Word; but the Word was not as one of things originate in a body, nor as creature in creature, but as God in flesh , and Framer of all and Builder in that which was built by Him. Chapter Texts explained; Fifthly, Acts Parallel instance in Genesis , The context contradicts the Arianinterpretation.

But here they must have the same answer as before, and first be told that the Word is a Son, as has been said above , and not a work, and that such terms are not to be understood of His Godhead, but the reason and manner of them investigated.

To persons who so inquire, the human Economy will plainly present itself, which He undertook for our sake. For what was crucified but the body? If then they suppose that the Saviour was not Lord and King, even before He became man and endured the Cross, but then began to be Lord, let them know that they are openly reviving the statements of the Samosatene.

Nor did He then begin to be, but we began to have Him for our Lord. For upon this, God being good and Father of the Lord, in pity, and desiring to be known by all, makes His own Son put on Him a human body and become man, and be called Jesus, that in this body offering Himself for all, He might deliver all from false worship and corruption, and might Himself become of all Lord and King.

This, at least according to my nothingness, is the meaning of this passage; moreover, a true and a good meaning have these words of Peter as regards the Jews. Nay you yourselves know that He is dead, and His remains are with you. That the Christ then must be such as the Scriptures say, you will plainly confess yourselves. For those announcements come from God , and in them falsehood cannot be.

If then ye can state that such a one has come before, and can prove him God from the signs and wonders which he did, you have reason for maintaining the contest, but if you are not able to prove His coming, but are expecting such an one still, recognise the true season from Daniel, for his words relate to the present time.

But if this present season be that which was of old, afore-announced, and you have seen what has taken place among us, be sure that this Jesus, whom you crucified, this is the expected Christ. For David and all the Prophets died, and the sepulchres of all are with you, but that Resurrection which has now taken place, has shown that the scope of these passages is Jesus. For it became the Christ , when giving life to others, Himself not to be detained by death; but this could not have happened, had He, as you suppose, been a mere man.

But in truth He is the Son of God , for men are all subject to death. Let no one therefore doubt , but the whole house of Israel know assuredly that this Jesus, whom you saw in shape a man , doing signs and such works, as no one ever yet had done, is Himself the Christ and Lord of all. For though made man, and called Jesus, as we said before, He received no loss by that human passion, but rather, in being made man, He is manifested as Lord of quick and dead.

But to do this by a mere man beseemed not ; lest, having man for our Lord, we should become worshippers of man. The Jews then, most of them , hearing this, came to themselves and immediately acknowledged the Christ , as it is written in the Acts. But, the Ario-maniacs on the contrary choose to remain Jews , and to contend with Peter; so let us proceed to place before them some parallel phrases; perhaps it may have some effect upon them, to find what the usage is of divine Scripture.

For the creatures are hallowed by the Holy Spirit ; but the Son , in that He is not hallowed by the Spirit , but on the contrary Himself the Giver of it to all , is therefore no creature, but true Son of the Father. Introductory to Proverbs , that the Son is not a Creature.

Arianformula, a creature but not as one of the creatures; but each creature is unlike all other creatures; and no creature can create. The Word then differs from all creatures in that in which they, though otherwise differing, all agree together, as creatures; viz. For it is the same to say work or creature, so that the proof that He is no work is a proof also that He is no creature.

Whereas one may marvel at these men, thus devising excuses to be irreligious, and nothing daunted at the refutations which meet them upon every point. And first let us see the answers, which they returned to Alexander of blessed memory, in the outset, while their heresy was in course of formation.

What use then is this pretence of saying that He is a creature and not a creature? And all the visible creation was made in six days:— in the first, the light which He called day; in the second the firmament; in the third, gathering together the waters, He bared the dry land, and brought out the various fruits that are in it; and in the fourth, He made the sun and the moon and all the host of the stars; and on the fifth, He created the race of living things in the sea, and of birds in the air; and on the sixth, He made the quadrupeds on the earth, and at length man.

For how, if, as you hold, He has come of nothing, is He able to frame things that are nothing into being?

Or if He, a creature, withal frames a creature, the same will be conceivable in the case of every creature, viz. And if this pleases you, what is the need of the Word, seeing that things inferior can be brought to be by things superior? But this is not so written, nor could it be. For none of things which are brought to be is an efficient cause , but all things were made through the Word: who would not have wrought all things, were He Himself in the number of the creatures.

For neither would the Angels be able to frame, since they too are creatures, though Valentinus , and Marcion , and Basilides think so, and you are their copyists; nor will the sun, as being a creature, ever make what is not into what is; nor will man fashion man, nor stone devise stone, nor wood give growth to wood.

But God is He who fashions man in the womb, and fixes the mountains, and makes wood grow; whereas man, as being capable of science, puts together and arranges that material, and works things that are, as he has learned; and is satisfied if they are but brought to be, and being conscious of what his nature is, if he needs anything, knows to ask it of God.

If then God also wrought and compounded out of materials, this indeed is a gentile thought, according to which God is an artificer and not a Maker, but yet even in that case let the Word work the materials, at the bidding and in the service of God.

But if He calls into existence things which existed not by His proper Word, then the Word is not in the number of things non-existing and called; or we have to seek another Word , through whom He too was called; for by the Word the things which were not have come to be. And how can He be Word and Wisdom, unless He be the proper offspring of His Essence , and did not come to be, as others, out of nothing?

And whereas all things are from nothing, and are creatures, and the Son , as they say, is one of the creatures too and of things which once were not, how does He alone reveal the Father , and none else but He know the Father? For could He, a work, possibly know the Father , then must the Father be also known by all according to the proportion of the measures of each: for all of them are works as He is.

How then did He alone know , except that He alone was proper to Him? And how proper, if He were a creature, and not a true Son from Him? For it is proper to the creatures and works not to be before their origination, and to subsist out of nothing, even though they excel other creatures in glory ; for this difference of one with another will be found in all creatures, which appears in those which are visible.

Moreover if, as the heretics hold, the Son were creature or work, but not as one of the creatures, because of His excelling them in glory , it were natural that Scripture should describe and display Him by a comparison in His favour with the other works; for instance, that it should say that He is greater than Archangels, and more honourable than the Thrones, and both brighter than sun and moon, and greater than the heavens.

For if He was worshipped as excelling them in glory , each of things subservient ought to worship what excels itself. But this is not the case ; for creature does not worship creature, but servant Lord, and creature God. And you say well, for so I am. But He had not been thus worshipped, nor been thus spoken of, were He a creature merely.

Introduction to Proverbs continued. And why should He learn, if the Father works hitherto? If the Son was created to create us, He is for our sake, not we for His For God is not wearied by commanding , nor is His strength unequal to the making of all things, that He should alone create the only Son , and need His ministry and aid for the framing of the rest.

Or let them tell us, why did all things through Him come to be, who was Himself but originate? How void of reason! Is not this a full proof of that irreligion, with which they have drugged themselves with much madness , till they blush not to be intoxicate against the truth?

Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment? Behold the fowls of the air, for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feeds them; are you not much better than they?


Four Orations Against the Arians

They, however, for whatever reason, still do not succumb; but, as swine and dogs wallow in their own vomit and their own mire, rather invent new expedients for their irreligion. If then He be not a Son, let Him be called a work, and let all that is said of works be said of Him, nor let Him and Him alone be called Son, nor Word, nor Wisdom; neither let God be called Father, but only Framer and Creator of things which by Him come to be; and let the creature be Image and Expression of His framing will, and let Him, as they would have it, be without generative nature, so that there be neither Word, nor Wisdom, no, nor Image, of His proper substance. For if He be not Son , neither is He Image. But if there be not a Son, how then say you that God is a Creator?


Discourse 1 Against the Arians

There is no absolutely conclusive evidence as to the elate of these Discourses, in fact they would appear from the language of ii. The situation seemed to clear, the time had come for gathering up the issues of the combat and striking a decisive blow. To this situation of affairs the treatise before us exactly corresponds. Characteristic of this period is the anxiety to conciliate and win over the so-called semi-Arians of the type of Basil of Ancyra who stumbled at the omoousion, but whose fundamental agreement with Athanasius was daily becoming more clear. Accordingly we find that Athanasius pointedly avoids the famous test word in these Discourses 99 with the exception of the fourth: see Orat.


Discourse 2 Against the Arians

Biography[ edit ] A statue of Athanasius in Catania , Sicily. Athanasius was born to a Christian family in the city of Alexandria [7] or possibly the nearby Nile Delta town of Damanhur sometime between the years and The earlier date is sometimes assigned due to the maturity revealed in his two earliest treatises Contra Gentes Against the Heathens and De Incarnatione On the Incarnation , which were admittedly written about the year before Arianism had begun to make itself felt, as those writings do not show an awareness of Arianism. Secondly, the Festal Epistles state that the Arians had accused Athanasius, among other charges, of not having yet attained the canonical age 30 and thus could not have been properly ordained as Patriarch of Alexandria in



Ferr The archbishop referred him to the guarantee of security which he had himself re- ceived ; and the presbyters, the laity, and the majority of all the inhabitants, supported him in demanding that no change should be made without a new imperial letter — the rather that they themselves were preparing to send a deputation to Con- stantius. Antony wrote to remonstrate with Gregory, but his letters met with insult. Four Discourses Against the Arians That they should retract, from motives of policy, was for them no unnatural course. Eusebius proceeded to Alexandria, in order to consult Athanasius as to the remedy for confusions produced by the Ariminian Council ; but Lucifer hastened to Antioch, leaving two deacons to represent him. Part of the tract is quoted in Soc. The Alex- andrian Church was not at first a sufferer by this change of monarchs; and a.

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