And, of course, these youthful practitioners must also learn to challenge the authority of their - ders. Many chapters in this book are coauthored by young scientists yielding the prognosis of continued health of our scienti? Indeed, I am quite proud that several of my own chapters in this book are coauthored with students and young engineers of enormous capability. It is a humbling honor to help delineate direction of this formidable talent.
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And, of course, these youthful practitioners must also learn to challenge the authority of their - ders. Many chapters in this book are coauthored by young scientists yielding the prognosis of continued health of our scienti?
Indeed, I am quite proud that several of my own chapters in this book are coauthored with students and young engineers of enormous capability. It is a humbling honor to help delineate direction of this formidable talent. It is incumbent upon my generation of scientists to provide a vision of the future.
In this book, we connect the scienti? Medical science of the past has been of singular societal focus with scienti? Nevertheless,Genomicsisrevolutionaryinthatcausalrelationsinmedicalscience are being established with scienti? Genomics is creating a predictive medical science that was but a dream for p- vious generations. In a similar way, scienti? Petroleomicsembodiestheestablishmentofstructure— function relations in petroleum science with particular focus on asphaltenes, the most enigmatic of petroleum components.
Asphaltenes, Heavy Oils, and Petroleomics
About this book Introduction Petroleomics is the prediction of all properties of petroleum based on the Petroleome, or complete listing of all components in a given crude oil. As it is developed, petroleomics will lead petroleum science into a bright new future, and it is the major focus of this book. A necessary step has been to resolve the molecular size and structure of asphaltene and its hierarchical aggregate structures, as well as the dynamics of asphaltenes. This is especially important for heavy oils. Flow assurance concerns and interfacial science are also treated. The technological development of downhole fluid analysis addresses the most important issues in deepwater production of oil. Petroleum science and technology are treated in a vertically integrated manner.
Composition[ edit ] Asphaltenes consist primarily of carbon , hydrogen , nitrogen , oxygen , and sulfur , as well as trace amounts of vanadium and nickel. The C:H ratio is approximately Asphaltenes are defined operationally as the n- heptane C 7H 6H 5CH 3 -soluble component of a carbonaceous material such as crude oil, bitumen , or coal. Asphaltenes have been shown to have a distribution of molecular masses in the range of u to u, but the average and maximum values are difficult to determine due to aggregation of the molecules in solution. Asphaltenes do not have a specific chemical formula: individual molecules can vary in the number of atoms contained in the structure, and the average chemical formula can depend on the source. Although they have been subjected to modern analytical methods, including the well known SARA analysis, mass spectrometry, electron paramagnetic resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance , the exact molecular structures are difficult to determine. Given this limitation, asphaltenes are composed mainly of polyaromatic carbon ring units with oxygen , nitrogen , and sulfur heteroatoms , combined with trace amounts of heavy metals, particularly chelated vanadium and nickel, and aliphatic side chains of various lengths.