Anastrepha suspensa was described originally from specimens collected in Cuba. Its geographic distribution and host range are very similar to two other species: A. Figure 1. Distribution of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew , in Florida. Drawing by G.
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Anastrepha suspensa was described originally from specimens collected in Cuba. Its geographic distribution and host range are very similar to two other species: A. Figure 1. Distribution of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew , in Florida.
Drawing by G. Steck and B. Sutton, Division of Plant Industry. A strain of A. On 6 November , two larvae, identified as being Anastrepha sp. Two additional larvae were collected from hog plums on 12 November, and five pupae were obtained on 12 and 14 November by sifting soil. Adults of A. Guava subsequently proved to be the preferred host of A. An eradication program for A. These measures consisted primarily of the maintenance of host-free conditions on the island, plus the application of tartar emetic sprays at two-week intervals.
Traps were used to obtain an indication of the progress of eradication. Meanwhile, investigations were conducted to determine what hosts might be attacked under caged conditions, as well as under field conditions, to determine the results of the crossing of several species of Anastrepha under laboratory conditions, to work out the life histories of the species found to occur in the Florida Keys, and to develop control and eradication techniques.
An expanded detection system of trapping eventually showed both A. This resulted in a discontinuation of eradication efforts in January During this period A. Under laboratory conditions at Key West, A. In every case the preferred host, guava, was present in the cage with other hosts that were attacked. In no case was orange, grapefruit, or mango attacked. Only 19 A. Although no eradication measures ever were applied on the mainland other than inspection in South Dade County, the native populations of A.
One larva identified as A. No positive conclusions can be drawn on the prevalence of A. No significant trapping was carried on for the detection of fruit flies until , following the rediscovery of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman in and its subsequent costly eradication. During the early s, O. This limited trapping program was not sufficient to provide conclusive evidence as to the occurrence, or lack of occurrence, of A.
Since , however, a new introduction of the pest into Florida has continued to spread and it now occurs in most of southern peninsular Florida, commonly north to Citrus and Volusia counties, with isolated records north to Jacksonville Ibrahim, Within the first three months following the discovery of A.
It has now developed into a major fruit fly problem for citrus and several other crops in Florida. Four days afterward, adults of Anastrepha suspensa were collected at this site. Intensive trapping and fruit cutting during the next several weeks indicated an alarming buildup of what appeared to be a localized population of A. Trapping and fruit cutting indicated extensions of this population as far northward as Riviera Beach and as far southward as Homestead by mid-July.
Many thousands of adults were taken in traps within a few weeks, with the heaviest concentration around the original find in Miami Springs. An intensive field survey showed that the larvae were attacking a fairly extensive list of host plants similar to the hosts of the Puerto Rican strain of A. There were several strong indications that this was a recently introduced strain of A.
The Division of Plant Industry of the Florida Department of Agriculture formerly the State Plant Board of Florida and the United States Department of Agriculture expanded the detection program to obtain more information on the distribution and abundance of this strain of A. Spray operations were instigated to try to check the further spread and increase of this fruit fly.
Description Back to Top Adult: The adult is a small yellow-brown fly that can be as long as 12—14 mm, with rather long, patterned wings. A distinct scutoscutellar spot is always present in Florida specimens, whereas A. Figure 2. Adult female Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew. Photograph by Division of Plant Industry.
Stone further stated that "in the national museum collection are 19 specimens, the offspring of two A. The cross was made at Key West, Fla. These specimens show characters of both parents and a wing pattern with the V band rather widely separated from the S band and therefore scarcely agreeing with either.
There is also a specimen reared by I. Berryhill at San Juan, Puerto Rico, in August , which is the result of the crossing of the two species. The writer has never seen any specimens collected in the field that agreed with these hybrid specimens, and it is rather doubtful that such crossing takes place in nature. Figure 3. Comparison of the ovipositors of the schoepfia fruit fly, A. Larva: The larva is white with the typical fruit fly larval shape cylindrical, elongated, anterior end usually somewhat recurved ventrally and with mouth hooks, flattened caudal end but with 10 fusiform areas visible; last instar about 8 to 10 mm in length.
Anterior buccal carinae normally 8. Cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton with relatively large mouth hook length 2 X width with hypostome of nearly equal width; dorsal bridge enlarged; pharyngeal plate longer than dorsal wing plate and with a long pharyngeal support. Anterior spiracles slightly asymmetrical, with a median depression; 12 to 13 tubules present.
Posterior spiracles elongated ca. Anal lobe always entire. Lateral view of the buccal carinae of A. Figure 5. Pharyngeal skeleton of A.
Figure 6. Caudal end of A. Figure 7. Anterior spiracles of A. Figure 8. Anal lobes of A. Figure 9. Posterior spriacles left group of A. Accurate larval identification of A. Nonetheless, these specimens did not result in a configuration of the cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton exactly as published in illustrations of Phillips and Pruitt Various populations of each fruit fly species evidently exhibit variations in this and other characters that need to be taken into account.
The main characteristics, however, of each species appear to be constant and allow relatively easy identification. The cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton is not usually examined in routine identifications because the larval specimen must be dissected before this character can be examined. Life Cycle Back to Top Anastrepha suspensa infests only mature to overripe fruits. Eggs are laid singly and hatch in about two to three days; the larval feeding period occupies 10 to 14 days, and pupation about the same.
Development times are prolonged in cool weather. Nearly hosts have been recorded for Caribbean fruit fly to date, including several Citrus species. Preferred hosts include: Eugenia uniflora, Surinam, Brazilian or Cayenne cherry Prunus persica, peach.
EPPO Global Database
Biology and ecology[ edit ] Natural history and life cycle[ edit ] Females lay their eggs in either developing and healthy fruits or in mature and rotten fruit like the A. The vast majority of species use their ovipositor to deposit the eggs in the edible part of the fruit either the epicarp or mesocarp , and some species such as A. Once larvae is fully mature make a hole to come out of the fruit, and it most happen when the fruit is on the ground. Then, the larva makes a hole on the ground to become a pupa.
However, they are captured by traps emitting ammonia. McPhail traps are usually used for the capture of Anastrepha spp. It may also be possible to use autolysed protein, as used for Bactrocera spp. Smith and Nannan, Epsky et al. The number of traps required per unit area is high; in a mark-release and recapture test, Calkins et al.
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